Grout filling of accessible pores between the solid particles in a permeable soil. This technique is generally used to reduce permeability and/or to strengthen and stiffen the ground.
Hydro Fracture Grouting
involves the deliberate fracturing of the soil or rock by grout under pressure. The resulting compaction and stiffening of the rock or soil mass can, in appropriate conditions, provide ground improvement where permeation grouting is not practicable.
an active technique to mitigate settlement arising from other engineering works (such as tunnel excavation) in order to provide protection to existing structures. Compensation grouting can take the form of permeation, compaction, or hydro fracture grouting depending on the local conditions of the given project.
The injection of stiff mortar or paste instead of grout to displace and compact the soil in situ, thus improving its engineering characteristics.
Grout infilling of discontinuities, fissures, fractures or joints in mass rock with the intention of reducing permeability and increasing the competence of the mass rock. This technique is particularly employed for dam construction and tunneling.
The injection methods that can be employed for the above techniques range from packer injection via a Tube a Manchette (TaM), packer injection direct into rock, descending / ascending, stage grouting or grout injection direct via drilling tools (end of casing grouting) or lancing.